Stuart R. Hameroff, MD

Director, Center for Consciousness Studies

Professor Emeritus, Anesthesiology

Professor Emeritus, Psychology




(520) 626-6295
Medical School: 
1973: Hahnemann Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Anesthesiology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona

Stuart R. Hameroff MD - Professor Emeritus

Anesthesiologist, Consciousness Researcher, Co Founder, Director, Center for Consciousness Studies


Research Websites/Databases to Stuart Hameroff Publications/Research


Memory or Mood Problems?  Clinical Trial of Transcranial Ultrasound ('TUS')  - under reconstruction

Anesth Department - Consciousness Research Page

Faculty Page Bio:   Banner - University Medical Center, Tucson College of Medicine, Anesthesiology


Center for Consciousness Studies - The Science of Consciousness

Conference Series Website       

Email the Center


PUB  SR Hameroff, Stuart Hameroff, Stuart R. Hameroff - Published Research

Pure Experts Portal (PURE) SciVal Experts  search: Hameroff, Stuart

IEEE Xplore Digital Library  1988-2009       search: Stuart Hameroff


2016 Publications, Interviews

Stuart R. Hameroff, Roger Penrose, Chapter 14 "Consciousness in the Universe: An Updated Review of the "Orch OR" Theory, in Biophysics of Consciousness: A Foundational Approach, eds. Roman R. Poznanski, Jack A. Tuszynski, Todd E. Feinberg, World Scientific, 2016

Stuart Hameroff, Change the Music - Psychotherapy and Brain Vibrations, Vol 4 Issue 4, April 2016


2015 Publications

Hameroff S - Commentary on Stuart Kauffman's - Quantum Criticality at the Origins of Life in John Hewitt's Quantum Criticality in life's proteins (update), - April 15, 2015.

Anesthesia Points to Deeper Level ‘Quantum Channels’ as Origins of Consciousness Electron resonance pervades the brain 3/23/15, Newswise  Citation: Travis JA Craddock, Stuart R Hameroff, Ahmed T Ayoub, Mariusz Klobukowski, Jack A Tuszynski, Anesthetics Act in Quantum Channels in Brain Microtubules to Prevent Consciousness, Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, 3/1/15, Vol 15:6, 523-533.

Publications Contin.


Current Research Projects:

Dr. Stuart Hameroff ‘s research projects are potentially open to resident involvement, time permitting. 

Clinical Trial of Transcranial Ultrasound ('TUS')

Tuning the Brain-TUS Transcranial Ultrasound  

Hameroff-Penrose Orch OR 

Hameroff Penrose / Review of Orch OR Theory

list of publications



   Stuart Hameroff MD grew up in Cleveland, Ohio, working summers at Republic Steel and Cleveland Stadium. At the University of Pittsburgh in the late 1960s, he studied chemistry, physics, mathematics and philosophy of mind. In medical school in the early 1970s at Hahnemann Medical College in Philadelphia, Hameroff spent a summer in a cancer research lab. Studying mitosis, he became interested in mitotic spindles and centrioles, composed of microtubules, polymers of the protein ‘tubulin’, and major components of the cytoskeleton within all cells. Comparing their lattice structure to Boolean computer matrices, he proposed that microtubules were the source of biological intelligence, and perhaps consciousness. Choosing an academic career, Hameroff trained in anesthesiology at the new University of Arizona Medical Center in Tucson, mentored by the department of anesthesiology’s founding chair, Dr Burnell Brown Jr, MD, PhD. After residency, Hameroff joined the anesthesiology faculty in 1977, a position he still holds as emeritus professor and practicing anesthesiologist.

   Hameroff’s research pursues theory - brain mechanisms of consciousness, memory, anesthetic action, quantum processing in microtubules, and clinical applications - transcranial ultrasound (TUS) for various brain disorders.

   In the mid 1990s Hameroff teamed with famed British physicist Sir Roger Penrose to develop a quantum theory of consciousness (‘orchestrated objective reduction’, ‘Orch OR’) based on microtubule quantum computing. Highly controversial and harshly criticized, Orch OR is now supported by evidence, e.g. that anesthetics act in quantum channels in microtubules, and that microtubules have multi-scalar resonances, e.g. in megahertz. Hameroff and Penrose wrote a 20 year review of Orch OR in 2014.

   Megahertz mechanical vibrations are ultrasound, clinically used in anesthesiology, and Hameroff proposed low intensity, non-invasive ultrasound could stimulate microtubule megahertz resonance and improve mental and neurological states in the brain. He and anesthesiology colleagues performed and published the first clinical trial of transcranial ultrasound (‘TUS’) on mental states in human volunteers, showing mood enhancement from brief, low intensity TUS. Collaborative studies with psychology professor John JB Allen and post-doc Jay Sanguinetti corroborated and elaborated TUS effects, and more TUS clinical studies are planned for Alzheimer’s disease, depression, traumatic brain injury (with Dr. Lemole in neurosurgery), Parkinsons (Dr. Scott Sherman in Neurology) and pediatric developmental delay (with Dr. Sydney Rice in pediatrics). The group will test a state-of-the-art TUS headset from Berkeley Ultrasound, sponsored and organized through the Center for Consciousness Studies.

   Beginning in 1994, with professor and former department head Al Kaszniak in Psychology, the late professor Alwyn Scott in mathematics, and subsequently philosophy (and Regents) professor David Chalmers, Hameroff started an interdisciplinary, international conference series ‘Toward a Science of Consciousness’ held in even-numbered years in Tucson, and odd-numbered years elsewhere around the world. April 2014 marked the 20 year anniversary ‘Tucson’ conference, and the 2015 conference will be in in Helsinki, Finland in June.

   In 1998, with Kaszniak and Scott, and a 1.4 million dollar grant from the Fetzer Institute, Hameroff co-founded the University of Arizona Center for Consciousness Studies (CCS), served as associate director, and succeeded Kaszniak and then Chalmers, as director in 2004.  With CCS moving administratively to anesthesiology, and Abi Behar-Montefiore as assistant director, CCS has subsisted since 2004 entirely on conference registration fees and small grants, and has supported relevant research.     

   Hameroff also collaborates with professors Jack Tuszynski at the University of Alberta, and Travis Craddock at Nova Southeastern on molecular modeling of microtubules, memory via CaMKII phosphorylation, and non-polar anesthetic and psychoactive drug actions in microtubule ‘quantum channels’. Quantum non-locality implied for consciousness has attracted interaction with Deepak Chopra, and the inaugural ‘Rustum Roy’ award  in 2011. 

   Hameroff has written or edited 5 books, over a hundred scientific articles and book chapters, lectured around the world, and appeared in the film ‘WhattheBleep?’ and numerous TV shows about consciousness on BBC, PBS, Discovery, OWN and History Channel. See,, and


Overview - Interest in Consciousness Research

Honors & Awards: 


Press Features


'Darwin Versus Deepak': Which Came First, Feelings, or the Brain?-6/02/2015 Huffington Post

Anesthesia Points to Deeper Level ‘Quantum Channels’ as Origins of Consciousness Electron resonance pervades the brain-3/23/15 - Newswise

Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry-Anesthetics Act in Quantum Channels in Brain Microtubules to Prevent Consciousness, Travis JA Craddock, Stuart R Hameroff, Ahmed T Ayoub, Mariusz Klobukowski, Jack A Tuszynski, Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry, 3/1/15, Vol 15:6, 523-533.

Press Features / Cont.


Penrose-Hameroff 'Orch OR' model featured in 'The Scientist': "Consciousness Studies - an Emerging Discipline?" Related to consciousness research:  BBC, PBS, Discovery Channel, Through the Wormhole, and several documentary films, radio interviews and popular magazine features (Discover, Scientific American); Penrose-Hameroff 'Orch OR' model listed as one of six theories of consciousness, World Book of Science 2000



Research Interests: 

Consciousness studies, quantum mechanical/general relativity approaches to consciousness, protein conformational dynamics, molecular mechanisms of anesthetic gas molecules, information processing in cytoskeletal microtubules, quantum information science, essential features of living systems, nanotechnology, nanomedicine, philosophical pan-protopsychism, coherence and decoherence.